The forging machine tool is a cold equipment for metal and machinery. It only changes the external shape of metal. Forging machine tools include plate bending machine, plate shearing machine, punch, press, hydraulic press, bending machine, etc.
Origin and background of forging machine tools
The tree lathe, which appeared more than 2000 BC, was the earliest prototype of machine tool Z. When working, the ferrule at the lower end of the rope is used to make the workpiece rotate by the rope with the elasticity of the branch. The shell or stone flake is used as a tool to move the tool along the lath to cut the workpiece. In the middle ages, elastic rod lathes still used this principle.
In the 15th century, due to the need of manufacturing clocks and watches, there were thread lathes and gear machines used by Clockmakers, as well as hydraulically driven barrel boring machines. Around 1500, Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian, had drawn the conceptual sketches of lathes, boring machines, thread machines and internal grinder, among which there were new mechanisms such as cranks, flywheels, Nose Tips and bearings. The structure of the grinding machine is also contained in the Tiangong Kaiwu published in the Ming Dynasty of China. The iron plate is rotated by pedaling, and the jade is cut by adding sand and water.
Industry in the 18th century promoted the development of machine tools. In 1774, Wilkinson, an Englishman, invented a more precise barrel boring machine. The following year, the cylinder he bored with this barrel boring machine met the requirements of watt steam engine. In order to bore larger cylinders, he also manufactured a hydraulic cylinder boring machine in 1776, which promoted the development of the steam engine., The machine tool began to be driven by the steam engine through the overhead shaft.
In 1797, the lathe created by the Englishman mozley was driven by a lead screw, which could realize the motorized feed and thread turning, which was a major change in the structure of the machine tool. Mozley is also known as the "British machine tool industry".
In the 19th century, driven by textile, power, transportation machinery and production, various types of machine tools appeared one after another. In 1817, the Englishman Roberts created the gantry planer; In 1818, American Whitney made a horizontal milling machine; In 1876, the United States made a universal cylindrical grinder; In 1835 and 1897, he successively invented gear hobbing machine and gear shaper.
With the invention of the motor, the machine tool began to use the centralized motor drive first, and then widely used the separate motor drive. At the beginning of the 20th century, coordinate boring machines and thread grinding machines were successively created in order to provide higher precision workpieces, fixtures and thread tools. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of mass production of automobile and bearing industries, we have developed various automatic machine tools, profiling machine tools, modular machine tools and automatic production lines.
With the development of electronic technology, the United States developed a digital control machine tool in 1952; In 1958, it was developed into a center that can automatically change tools to carry out multiple processes., With the development and application of electronic technology and computer technology, significant changes have taken place in the drive mode, control system, structure and function of machine tools.